• explain the main actors and processes underpinning strategic planning today. It has been accepted for inclusion in Electronic Journal for Inclusive Education … Here are some ideas to encourage inclusive schooling: • assess schools using tools like the Index for Inclusion, • create opportunities for teachers, administrative staff, the school community to interact with persons with disabilities, • frame guidelines for collaboration between teachers, special educators and teaching assistants, • develop training programs promoting collaborative teamwork, • allocate resources for assistive technology and communication, • collaborate with disability resource centres to support mainstream schools, • conduct access audits of the school environment, • train teachers through pre-service and in-service programs in differentiated instruction, cooperative learning, curricular accommodations, • encourage co-teaching in the inclusive classroom • encourage teachers to meet regularly to discuss best practices, • adapt curriculums and assessment techniques. It means real learning opportunities for groups who have traditionally been excluded – not only children with disabilities, but speakers of minority languages too. Inclusive education values diversity and the unique contributions each student brings to the classroom. Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn and grow side by side, to the benefit of all. A KPMG evaluation report in 2016, on the achieve- ments of the RTE six years following the enactment, highlights the challenges in the debate over quality of learning. Some examples of Universal Design Classroom interventions that can benefit all learners, • Access: ramps, seating, transport, electronic books, • Participation: visual schedules, illustrated vocabulary, working with partners, project work, work experience, outdoor sports, visual and performing arts, • Modes of expression: written, verbal responses, art, drama, multimedia presentations. Article 21-A of the Constitution guarantees education as a fundamental right and specifies that the state shall provide free and compulsory education for all children in the 6-14 years age group, although it was not until 2009 that the RTE Act was passed by Parliament. Explain to students how being inclusive can benefit the whole class. provincial education authorities, engaged in a large-scale programme to field-test new ideas and practices towards a system of education that can include all learners, regardless of their diverse needs. The Act defines a ‘child’ to include children from the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, children facing disadvantages from social, economic, gender and religious factors, and, lastly, children with disability. Inclusive systems require changes at all levels of society. His teacher needs to give him activities that include play in learning, shorter-duration tasks and tangible appreciation for achievement. Activists with disability played an important role as stakeholders invested in facilitating social change and claimed their movement was entering a new phase. She trained as a special educator at Vidya Sagar, Chennai, 20 years ago and was introduced to the trans-disciplinary approach there. Sign up for a new Teachers of India account. Unlike the PWD Act, 1995, the RPWD Act, 2009 provides for Inclusive Education, which it defines as ‘a system of education wherein students with and without disability learn together and the system of teaching and learning is suitably adapted to meet the learning needs of different types of students with disability.’ It also elaborates the basic requirements and the means of implementation. The fact that the new law is UNCRPD-compliant is transformative in its philosophical underpinnings and shifts the focus from social welfare to human rights. Many of those classrooms are what’s known as inclusive (or inclusion) classrooms. Sajan and others like him will benefit from early intervention and plenty of encouragement. The most progressive feature of the RPWD Act is the ‘Universal Design’ concept promoted by the UNCRPD. Groups with a more narrow purpose are only slightly more current with their information. Ensuring that each individual has an equal opportunity for educational progress remains a challenge worldwide. Even in 2001, when the Constitution was amended to guarantee the fundamental right to education for all, the education of children with disabilities was perceived as a subject of state welfare. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by CORE Scholar. Positive Psychology, Second Edition, Sage Publications India Pvt Ltd, 2011.17 The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016, http://www.ncpedp.org/sites/all/themes/marinelli/documents/Rights%20of%2...(RPWD)%20Act%202016.pdf18 The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 http://thenationaltrust.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Persons%20with%2... Anuradha, until recently, worked in Hong Kong as an Early Interventionist with children with special needs in the 0-6 age group, under the auspices of an early education centre sub-vented by the Hong Kong Government program serving the non-Chinese-speaking population. Similar statistics on learning outcomes in numeracy point out that pedagogy and teacher-student interactions that encourage learning through understanding and application are needed. inclusive education for students with disability internationally, and specifically within Australia. ‘We slot people at a particular level based on our understanding of the person’s impairment. The Consultative Forum is a statutory committee established under EPSEN (2004) for the purpose of assisting and advising the Council on matters relating to its functions. This systemic entrenchment in welfare has resulted in the preservation of segregated services even within the flagship programme for the Education For All Campaign, the SSA. As more children with physical, intellectual, emotional, and other impairments learn alongside typical children, teachers continue to discover how … Subsequently, the RPWD Act, 2016 came into force, replacing the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act (PWD Act), 1995. Nearly 50 per cent of children with disabilities are not in school, compared to only 13 per cent of their peers without disabilities. Inclusive education means all children in the same classrooms, in the same schools. Inclusive education approaches differences and diversity affirmatively, recognizing the value of such differences and the learning opportunities that such diversity offers. Sajan, 6, was diagnosed with a pervasive developmental disorder (a disorder associated with social, language and communication skills) when he was 3 years old. This has increased stress levels at home. The Learning Curve is a newsletter from the Azim Premji Foundation. Inclusive systems value the unique contributions students of all backgrounds bring to the classroom and allow diverse groups to grow side by side, to the benefit of all. How do the RTE Act and the RPWD Act work together? Sajan can grow up in a joyful learning environment if the same teaching-learning methods are accessible to him and all the other students in the class. It is a process and not an end product of a series of interventions. Maximising flexibility in teaching and classroom practice is an area which needs further research. The barriers she encountered were attitudinal: the school authorities just could not understand how a child would get through school without being able to write. The Head of KPMG’s Education Sector points out that the government has so far focussed on universal enrolment and infrastructure development, but now the focus should be on quality of learning. Under the RTE, a child like Fatima, between the ages of 6 and 14 years, has a right to be admitted into a neighbourhood school to access free and compulsory education. As the UNCRPD emphasises, the problem of disability lies not in the person but in the ’barriers’ imposed by the environment. With curricular adaptation, Sajan could learn to develop his attention span using the activities he loves, working on the same learning outcomes as the rest of the class. Therefore, administrators and teachers can spell out the ‘Reasonable Accommodations’, that is, the adjustments or modifications in the curriculum or school environment in their Inclusive School Development Plan. Hence the onus lies on each educator to understand the nature of diversity in her classroom. This discussion paper explains that much more needs to be done for children with disabilities living in situations of armed conflict, and offers evidence-based recommendations. Enter your Email Address here to receive a link to change your password. An important development under the purview of the RPWD Act, which has tremendous significance for formal schools, is the inclusion of 21 different types of disability, fourteen more than the original seven in the PWD Act. Section 21 of the RTE Act invests the mandatory School Management Committee with the responsibility to create a school development plan. Simply put, both students with and without disabilities learn more. However, on admission she was placed in a special unit and was to remain there till she had gained mastery over the English and Tamil alphabets. Take a look. At the national level, Governments must align laws and policies with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, and regularly collect and analyse data to ensure children are reached with effective services. The three cases studies presented in the essay demonstrate that children fall through the cracks of a fragmented system, despite laws recognising disability as an element of human diversity. A culture of collaboration and dialogue among all stakeholders - teachers, special educators, administrators, families and persons with disability is urgently needed to eliminate social barriers and enable a Whole School Development approach to support Inclusion for all children. The story of Fatima, from Chennai, as narrated by her mother, a housewife from a coastal town in southern Tamil Nadu, illustrates the challenges in the implementation of the RTE Act. Given the school’s progressive history, curricular accommodations such as use of teaching assistants, reduced portions, extra time for writing are part of the class routine. The total enrolment rate in developing regions reached 91 percent in 2015, and the worldwide number of children out of school has dropped by almost half. Both the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act (RTE Act), 2009 and the Rights of Persons With Disabilities Act (RPWD Act), 2016, make provisions for Inclusive Education. More and better research on the drivers of growth will be needed to improve policy. Sustainable Development Goal 4 on Education and the Education 2030 Framework for Action emphasize inclusion and equity as laying the foundations for quality education.. They face persistent barriers to education stemming from discrimination, stigma and the routine failure of decision makers to incorporate disability in school services. ‘Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design’ (Mace, 1988). This literature review examines the link between inclusive education and the social inclusion of people with disabilities. IIEP. Disability is the single most serious barrier to … The website of the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) has links to documents on ‘learning outcomes’ for elementary schools, a guidebook on index to inclusion, and suggestions for ‘accommodation and modifications’ in assessment. Use electronic portfolio, • involve parents of children with disability. Disability rights activists ask if social barriers are being overlooked. But progress comes slowly. Lead 5 Ways Leadership Can Change the Conversation Around Diversity and Inclusion Oftentimes leaders think that the risk is too great to get involved in the discussion of diversity and inclusion. Another positive feature of the RTE Act is its emphasis on ‘Access to Quality Education’. • Examples of successful experiences in different regions of the world in which parents and social organizations have acted in support of inclusive education. Inclusion lies at the heart of the Sustainable Development Goals. Unlike the PWD Act, the preamble of the RPWD Act lays down the ‘principles of empowerment of persons with disability’. Then and Now The inclusion of the education of children with disability in the ‘Education for All’ goals was followed by the 86th Amendment to the Indian Constitution in 2002. Strengthening education systems and innovation. When kids are found eligible for special education services, it’s common for their families to worry that they’ll be placed in a different classroom than other kids their age.But most kids who are eligible for special education spend the majority of their time in general education classrooms. Fatima had encountered traditional social barriers right at the doorstep. (That concept is based on the assumptions of the UN Convention on the Rights of Children, where adults take into account the children’s capacity to exercise their rights. However, contradictions arise owing to inadequate self-reflection over attitudes and insufficient opportunity to collaborate among stakeholders: teachers (general and specialist), parents, children and administrators. At age 6, she was admitted to Standard 1 of her neighbourhood school; she is now in Standard 3. http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Index%20English.pdf. Are teachers today prepared in the basic practices of curriculum adaptation, collaborative skills and Universal Design to build a new inclusive school culture? The subsequent enactment of two progressive legislative initiatives - the Right to Education Act and The Rights of Persons with Disability Act - reflects a policy shift from a welfare-based approach to one that emphasises human rights. Respectful dialogue through a participatory engagement that helps to develop sensitised personnel, differentiated instructional strategies, modes of alternative communication, active involvement of parents and the community and an administration committed to the advancement of inclusive education is critical. In the new Act, the basic requirements of attenders, transportation, physical and communication barriers will all be considered as a form of reasonable accommodation. DFID will work for inclusive growth through a number of programmes and continues to spend heavily on health and education, which have a major impact on poor people’s ability to take part in growth opportunities. As she grew older, it became clearer that she had developmental coordination disorder, which made writing a huge challenge. Disability rights activists are concerned that children with high support needs are enrolled in school, but end up in home-based programs under the SSA. A supportive environment can be the most critical factor in the education of children with disabilities. The World Bank supports social sustainability and inclusion by fostering inclusive and resilient societies where citizens have voice and governments respond. The research basis for inclusive education. In a truly inclusive setting, every child feels safe and has a sense of belonging. The idea of the child with disability going to mainstream schools, along with other children marginalised by poverty, gender and cultural factors, was gaining momentum. Teacher self- reflection goes a long way to create a nurturing classroom. The passage of the RPWD Act, 2016 to replace the PWD Act was a special moment in the history of the disability rights movement. Leading SDG 4 - Education 2030 Education is a human right and a force for sustainable development and peace. To close the education gap for children with disabilities, UNICEF supports government efforts to foster and monitor inclusive education systems. Martin Seligman, the father of contemporary Positive Psychology, says, ‘Positive inclusive schooling is based on the values of freedom, trust and respect for human diversity.’ Tony Booth, author of Index for Inclusion, also emphasises the role of values in the democratic and participatory practice of Inclusion, which recognises teachers and learners equally. Robbed of their right to learn, children with disabilities are often denied the chance to take part in their communities, the workforce and the decisions that most affect them. Early detection is also a recognised part of the school system, a progressive step considering that childhood disabilities go undetected in the early years. This goes against the spirit of the RTE Act. However, Disability Rights activists draw attention to the sobering reality that, despite enrolment, children with a disability are invisible in the classroom. Worldwide, these children are among the most likely to be out of school. Suleymanov, F. (2015). Finally, the RTE Act makes it obligatory for the state to monitor school bodies, and improve their governance and school development plans. Born premature, Kanika was diagnosed with cerebral palsy at birth. From discrimination, stigma and the school 's duty to accept the child with benchmark disability with support. Assessment methods must also reflect the change emerging inclusive education is included of this evidence in regard to three research... Ensure students understand what this means in practice their skills and realize their potential. Decisions that affect them inclusion to work key research questions: 1 end product of series... 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